Egy ritka Kárpát-medencei szarmata női viseleti elem
Preventive excavations prior to the construction of motorway M3, west of Nyíregyháza, uncovered a large Sarmatian cemetery in 2005. The excavation revealed that most of the graves had been robbed; grave No. 39 was an exception in this respect. The paper presents the neck ornament found in this grave...
|Series:||Monográfiák a Szegedi Tudományegyetem Régészeti Tanszékéről
Új nemzedék: a szegedi Régészeti Tanszék tehetséggondozásának elmúlt évtizedei : Ünnepi kötet B. Tóth Ágnes, Kulcsár Valéria, Vörös Gabriella és Wolf Mária tiszteletére 7
|Kulcsszavak:||Régészet - leletek|
|Summary:||Preventive excavations prior to the construction of motorway M3, west of Nyíregyháza, uncovered a large Sarmatian cemetery in 2005. The excavation revealed that most of the graves had been robbed; grave No. 39 was an exception in this respect. The paper presents the neck ornament found in this grave [Table 2 and 7]. The neckwear was composed of three silver torcs, a golden spring ring, at least five bucket-shaped pendants (one of which was made of gold), and several amber, carnelian, coral and glass beads. It is not clear whether the eight large spherical chalcedony beads were also part of the necklace or they were applied to button up the dress. The function of the three fibulae lined up above the torcs is not clear either. The fibulae served as a key for dating the grave. One of them was probably a box fibula which collapsed, so it was unsuitable for dating. The knee fibulae made of silver are rare; in the cemetery of Nyíregyháza two such pieces were found [Table 5]. The two fibulae most likely derived from Upper Moesia based on their structure and material. Both were produced after the mid-2nd century, most likely at the end of the century, and were probably used as late as by the mid-3rd century. The third fibula of the Nyíregyháza grave is a cicada. It differs from other pieces from the Great Hungarian Plain in the Roman period, since it was made of silver and casted in two pieces [Fig. 4]. The underlying knee-bent fibulae were in use from the mid-1st century to the late Roman period. Based on its shape, it can be linked to the Elbe Germans; it shows similarities to the so-called fibulae bent in the knee, but without a lower cord. All three fibulae of the Nyíregyháza grave represent a rare type. They do not provide a clear chronology, but refer to the 3rd century, especially to the middle part. The rest of the finds do not contradict to this dating either. Grave No. 39 from Nyíregyháza contained an item of the Sarmatian women’s clothing, a pectoral, which is unusual on the Great Hungarian Plain, and has not been analysed by researchers yet. A similar wear can be assumed only in the case of grave No. 1 in Klárafalva. However, since a significant number of the graves from this period have been robbed, it cannot be excluded that this costume item, which can be called a pectoral, was more widespread than it seems now. The difference in the dating and the spatial distance between the Nyíregyháza and Klárafalva graves might indicate a wider range of use.|